Although it comes up most frequently when I review emotional support animal reasonable accommodation requests under the Fair Housing Act (FHA), the issue of just who is “disabled” is one for all of us in the professional apartment management field to understand. Under the law, a person is considered as “disabled” when there is a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one of more major life activities, there exists a record of such an impairment, or if the person is regarded as having such an impairment. A major life activity is typically thought of as caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, and/or working. This is, of course, not an exclusive list and management must be prepared to evaluate each request based on the needs of any resident who reaches out.
Not all conditions rise to the level of a disability. For example, just because someone is diagnosed with anxiety – it does not necessarily follow that the person is disabled. It is absolutely true that some forms of anxiety are disabling such that the person is considered disabled under the law. Just not that every case of anxiety (or another condition) rises to the level where a reasonable accommodation or reasonable modification request is appropriate. Now, before anyone fires off an angry email, read this paragraph again. In short, there are many conditions (such as chronic mental illness, hearing loss, mobility impairments, visual needs, cancer, HIV, past drug use) which can be a covered disability and that my clients and I will engage in the interactive process with you to resolve. My point is simply that not every condition (particularly a condition that is not obvious or known to the leasing office) rises to the level of a legitimate disability. That is why, of course, management seeks medical verifications for certain accommodation or modification requests.
Also, there are two groups of people who are excluded from coverage under the FHA: (1) current illegal drug users and (2) anyone who poses a direct threat to the health and safety of others or to the property itself. If someone is perceived as a direct threat, management will need evidence as to the nature of the threat and instances of specific conduct. Raw speculation will not suffice. Also, it is a good practice to undertake a review to determine if there is an accommodation that would mitigate the direct threat before moving forward against a resident.
Just A Thought.